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Pregnant or lambing queens and young animals older than 8.10 months are most susceptible to the disease. Type C causes disease mainly in adult animals. Type D is isolated in spring in lambs and in autumn in adults. The largest and most well-fed (sedentary) animals are most often affected. Both types of chloroquine are present in the soil of disadvantaged farms and in the intestines of sheep from disadvantaged flocks.
The source of the infectious agent is sick sheep, as well as bacteria carriers that excrete the pathogen with feces. The factors of transmission of the infectious agent are environmental objects (pastures, sheds, feed, soil, water bodies) infected with the secretions of sick animals, as well as corpses.
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Animals become infected when the pathogen enters the gastrointestinal tract with food and water. The disease does not occur in all infected animals, but only when the intestinal function is impaired, in particular when sheep are hypothermic, abrupt changes in feeding, a quick transition from a winter diet to a green, easily fermenting feed, etc. The disease occurs in the form of outbreaks with coverage of up to 15.20% of the flock or less often sporadically. A pronounced seasonality is noted mainly on spring pastures. The causative agent is in the digestive tract of sheep or enters it with food, multiplies intensively in the intestines and produces a large amount of toxin or protoxin, which is activated under the influence of proteolytic enzymes. Increased reproduction of microbes and toxin formation is preceded by a violation of the motor and secretory activity of the intestine. In an infection caused by a type C pathogen, hemorrhagic phenomena predominate, especially in the intestines and parenchymal organs; type D - toxic phenomena.
Toxins affect the epithelial cells of the mucous membrane, as well as the parenchyma of the kidneys, liver, central nervous system and cause poisoning of the body. With enterotoxemia, a rapid metabolic disorder occurs (especially carbohydrate metabolism), a functional disorder of the kidneys, liver, and central nervous system is noted.
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- Course and clinical manifestation
- The incubation period of the disease depends on the physiological state of the animal, the amount and toxicity of the pathogen penetrating the gastrointestinal tract, contributing factors, and usually lasts 4.6 hours
- The disease proceeds superacutely, acutely, subacutely and chronically. Clinical signs of the disease depend on the nature of its course
- With a superacute course, the animal dies suddenly, within 2.3 hours, due to rapidly developing toxemia
- Clinical signs do not have time to manifest themselves, often in a shed or pasture, healthy sheep are found dead on the eve
- They also note depression, an excited state, convulsions, a sharp violation of cardiac activity and respiration, impaired coordination of movements, and bloody diarrhea
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The convulsive form is characterized by sudden convulsions, the animals fall on their side, gnash their teeth. Death occurs within 2.4 hours. Mortality up to 100%. A subacute course is rarely recorded; adult animals are more often ill. At the same time, loss of appetite, severe thirst are noted; visible mucous membranes and conjunctiva are pale, and then acquire an icteric color.
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Hair loss in some areas, diarrhea, dark brown feces with a putrid odor are often observed. In permanently disadvantaged flocks, up to 80. „90% of sheep can easily get sick, with minor diarrhea. Body temperature is usually low (up to 40 ° C), shallow breathing. Sometimes abortions are possible, urine is dark brown. The illness lasts 5.12 days. A subacute course can be observed as an independent or as a continuation of a fulminant or acute course.
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A chronic course is observed in sheep of reduced fatness. They are weakened, depressed, drowsy, anemic, refuse to feed, manifestations from the nervous system are possible. Sheep grow thin to the point of complete exhaustion.
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They are all the more characteristic, the longer the disease. With a lightning current, they may not be at all. The corpses are swollen and quickly decompose. There are dark purple spots on the hairless parts of the body. Muddy foam with an admixture of blood is released from the oral and nasal cavities. In the abdominal and chest cavities, an accumulation of chloroquine excudata, most of the parenchymal organs are affected.